The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Central African Republic (CAR) and South Sudan face multiple conflicts. The causes include weak state authorities, marginalisation of remote communities, and mistrust between the population and those who govern. The lack of strong governance – particularly in border zones – has allowed armed groups to operate across the porous border. For instance, since 2013, nearly 600,000 people remain displaced in the Central African Republic alone. The conflicts are exacerbated by the social exclusion of large groups of the population such as people who have been displaced, women and youth. In CAR, responses to the conflict continue to focus on the immediate conflict symptoms rather than addressing its root causes. While in South Sudan, the political crisis continues to bring hardship and instability.

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