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References and further reading


A suggested further reading list on inclusion and peacebuilding, with sections on four case study contexts - Colombia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Turkey/Kurds and Syria.

Websites and resources

Conflict Research Programme:…

Inclusive Peace and Transition Initiative:

International Civil Society Action Network:

Peace Accord Matrix:

Peace Agreements Database (PA-X):

Political Settlements Research Programme: 


Herbolzheimer, Kristian. Innovations in the Colombian peace process. Report, Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre/Conciliation Resources, 2016

International Victims’ Forum (Foro Internacional de Víctimas):

Kroc Institute Reports on Colombia:

Laing, Nyasha. ‘Colombia’s Truth Commission prepares to embark on the extraterritorial truth-telling process’. The International Center for Transitional Justice, 22 August 2018

National Centre for Historical Memory (Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica):…

National Democratic Institute. Victims Participation Roundtables Guide – Colombia:…

National Peace Council (Consejo Nacional de Paz, Reconciliación y Convivencia):…

Herbolzheimer, Kristian. ‘Desmitificar la mesa de negociación’ Semana, 23 October 2012.

Pospisil, Jan. ‘Colombia: Don’t they want peace?’, PSRP blog post, 4 October 2016.

Democratic Republic of Congo

Kivu Security Tracker:

Verweijen, Judith. Stable Instability: Political settlements and armed groups in the Congo (London: Rift Valley Institute, 2016)

Verweijen, Judith. ‘From autochthony to violence? Discursive and coercive social practices of the Mai Mai in Fizi, eastern DR Congo’, African Studies Review Vol. 58, No. 2 (20015): 157–180

Vlassenroot, Koen. and Van Acker, Frank. ‘War as exit from exclusion? The formation of Mayi-Mayi militias in Eastern Congo’ Afrika Focus Vol. 17, Nos. 1–2 (2001): 51–77


Çelik, Ay¸se Betül. ‘Turkey: Kurdish question and the coercive state’, in Thania Paffenholz (ed.) Civil society and peacebuilding: A critical assessment (Boulder: Lynne Reiner, 2010)

Özpek, Burak Bilgehan. The peace process between Turkey and the Kurds: Anatomy of a failure (Routledge, 2017)

Köse, Talha. ‘AK party’s Kurdish reconciliation initiative (2013-2015)’, Turkish Journal of Middle Eastern Studies Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017): 13–40

Köse, Talha. ‘The AKP and the ‘Alevi Opening’: Understanding the dynamics of the rapprochement’, Insight Turkey Vol. 1, No. 2 (2010): 143–164

Kiri¸sçi, Kemal & Gareth Winrow. The Kurdish question and Turkey: An example of a trans-state ethnic conflict (London: Frank Cass & Co, 1997)


Brynen, Rex, Pete Moore, Bassel Salloukh & Marie-Joëlle Zahar. Beyond the Arab Spring: Authoritarianism and Democratization in the Arab World (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2012)

Citizens for Syria. Syrian civil society organizations reality and challenges: A research based on the results of capacity assessment of Syrian civil society organizations. Berlin: Citizens for Syria, 2017

Hellmüller, Sara & Marie-Joëlle Zahar. Against the odds: Civil society in the Intra-Syrian Talks. Issue Briefs (New York, International Peace Institute, 2018)

Hellmüller, Sara. ‘United Nations mediation in Syria: Disentangling the relation between inclusion, performance, and legitimacy’, in Oliver Richmond and Birte Vogel (eds) Local legitimacy and international peace intervention (New York: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming)

Solon, Olivia. ‘How the White Helmets became victims of an online propaganda Machine’, The Guardian, 20 December 2017

Swisspeace. Inside Syria: What local activists are doing for peace. swisspeace, Conflict Dynamics International,, 2016.…

Syrian Network for Human Rights. ‘Sochi Conference threatens Syria peace process’, 3 January 2018.…

Yezid, Sayigh. ‘Syria’s very local regional conflict’, Carnegie Middle East Centre, 9 June 2014.…

Issue editor

Andy Carl


Andy Carl is an experienced peacebuilding practitioner with a career of leadership in the NGO sector. Andy currently works as an independent writer and advisor to individuals, groups and organisations engaged in working on peace, justice and social change processes. He helped establish International Alert in 1989 and in 1994 he co-founded Conciliation Resources where he was Executive Director for 22 years.