Michael Semple is visiting professor at the Institute for the Study of Conflict Transformation and Social Justice, Queen’s University Belfast. He specialises in research, policy and practice of humanitarian assistance and conflict resolution in Afghanistan and Pakistan. He worked in the region from 1988–2008 and was a member of the United Nations political team that helped implement the 2001 Bonn Agreement. From 2004–08 he was Deputy to the European Union Special Representative for Afghanistan. Michael is a recognised analyst of the Afghan Taliban Movement and his current research looks at challenges facing militant jihadi groups evolving a political role.