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Renegotiating a new social contract is essential. But this is currently blocked by a fundamental lack of confidence among the warring parties and society as a whole, driven by the pervasive violence which prevents agreement on even the most basic issues. This is why a radical new approach to peace is required to build peace incrementally, starting with measures to reduce violence as an essential enabler to increase dialogue towards a more inclusive social contract that can involve all of Afghan society – men and women.

This report is an output of the Political Settlements Research Programme, which is funded by the Department for International Development (DFID).