Resources

Indonesia - Asia’s perestroika: regime change and transition from within

Legitimacy and peace processes: from coercion to consent
Apr 2014

Agus Wandi and Nezar Patria discuss Asian perestroika in Indonesia. Years of reformist mobilisation underpinned the collapse of President Suharto’s New Order dictatorship in 1998 – ultimately sparked by the Asian economic crisis.

Reconciliation, reform and resilience: Positive peace for Lebanon (Accord 24) - English version

Jul 2012

Lebanon’s model of post-war power sharing and liberal economic growth has been widely praised. But it has failed to deliver for most Lebanese. Repeated outbreaks of political violence since the 1989 Taif Peace Agreement, and today fear of spillover from insecurity in Syria, show that a fundamentally different approach is needed to transform negative and precarious stability in Lebanon into positive and resilient peace.

Policy brief – Reconciliation, reform and resilience: Positive peace for Lebanon

Jul 2012
A fundamentally different approach is needed to transform precarious stability in Lebanon into durable peace. Repeated outbreaks of political violence since the 1989 Taif Peace Accord show that Lebanon’s model of power sharing and liberal economic growth, while widely praised, has in reality failed to deliver a noticeable peace dividend. This 6-page policy brief summarises the findings of Accord 24 and sets out 10 priorities for change.

Dealing with Lebanon's past: remembering, reconciliation, art and activism

Positive peace for Lebanon: reconciliation, reform and resilience
Jul 2012
Sune Haugbølle reviews Lebanese efforts to pursue reconciliation and deal with the past. He explores issues of memory and remembering: Lebanon’s ‘state-sponsored amnesia’ over the war years; and the role of culture and of civil society in documenting and discussing them. Haugbolle considers options to integrate civil and national reconciliation initiatives and to involve political elites, as well as the potential of rural and traditional conflict resolution structures to engage grassroots in national reconciliation processes.

Box 1 - Documenting memories of war: UMAM and The Hangar

Positive peace for Lebanon: reconciliation, reform and resilience
Jul 2012
Liliane Kfoury illustrates Lebanese civil initiatives for memorialisation by describing the Association for Documentation and Research (UMAM D & R), which gathers wartime testimonies of combatants, politicians, civilians, the displaced and relatives of missing people, in order to help preserve collective memory of the war.

Box 2 - War, peace and history in Lebanon: a conversation with Ahmad Beydoun

Positive peace for Lebanon: reconciliation, reform and resilience
Jul 2012
In conversation with Accord, Ahmad Beydoun describes how the teaching of history is sectarian for many Lebanese. He stresses the importance of narrative diversity in recollecting experiences of the war, and the potential of a coordinated national educational curriculum to help accommodate and acknowledge different views as a means to improve understanding of the ‘other’.

Displacement, return and reconciliation in Mount Lebanon

Positive peace for Lebanon: reconciliation, reform and resilience
Jul 2012
Mass displacement during the war resulted in ‘confessional cleansing’ in many areas. Aïda Kanafani-Zahar looks at state returnee policy in the Mount Lebanon region, which claimed to prioritise reconciliation between Christian and Druze to prevent cyclical violence, but in fact has left little room for victims’ testimony or memories. Broader goals of ‘pacification’ and a communal rather than individual rationale have fuelled sectarianism and fed into national-level power struggles.

The Special Tribunal for Lebanon

Positive peace for Lebanon: reconciliation, reform and resilience
Jul 2012
Chandra Lekha Sriram asks if the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, set up to investigate the 2005 assassination of Prime Minister Rafiq al-Hariri, can support a broader function for transitional justice and peace. To date, both the creation and subsequent operation of the tribunal have been politically divisive, generating parliamentary stand-offs and government collapse.

International peacebuilding in Lebanon: what role for the EU?

Positive peace for Lebanon: reconciliation, reform and resilience
Jul 2012
Duccio Bandini discusses EU support for Lebanon, and in particular the role of the Instrument for Stability (IfS). EU engagement is increasingly looking to prioritise conflict sensitivity, moving beyond a primarily post-conflict recovery approach to address structural drivers of conflict. This has led to a renewed focus on supporting conflict prevention and peacebuilding tools geared towards dialogue and reconciliation, promoting electoral reform and reconciliation, and emphasising participation and civil society as a means to promote inclusion.

Conclusion: building peace and resilience for Lebanon

Positive peace for Lebanon: reconciliation, reform and resilience
Jul 2012
In their conclusion, Accord 24 co-editors Elizabeth Picard and Alexander Ramsbotham outline the progress needed to achieve durable peace in Lebanon. These include the need to tackle state-sponsored amnesia and sectarian narratives of the past; to meaningfully rebuild the social contract between state and society; to reinforce Lebanon's internal resilience in the face on external threats and intervention.

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