Resources

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking

Feb 2008
Faced with the problem of how to respond to the challenges of intra-state armed conflict, international policymakers often turn to incentives, sanctions and conditionality in the hope that these tools can alter the conflict dynamics and influence the protagonists' behaviour. Drawing on case studies from around the world, Accord issue 19 suggests that while these instruments have in some cases helped tip the balance towards settlement, in many others they been ineffective, incoherent or subsumed into the dynamics of the conflict.

Introduction to the Sri Lanka case study

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
This short article provides a brief introduction and background to the four articles on Sri Lanka that follow.

Negotiations in a globalised world

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Arguing that the negotiations between the Sri Lankan government and the LTTE that began in 2002 must be understood less as a ‘peace process’ than as a part of the government’s strategic response to economic crisis, Sunil Bastian outlines the reason for their failure.

The limits of external influence

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Former government negotiator Harim Peiris reflects on three aspects of international involvement in Sri Lanka's peace process: the impact of terrorist designations on the LTTE, the use of aid as a lever, and the orchestration of international support.

Prejudice, asymmetry and insecurity

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Suthaharan Nadarajah discusses the Sri Lankan peace process from 2002 and concludes that international action served to tilt the strategic balance in favour of the state rather than ensuring the parties addressed the underlying causes of conflict.

International support for peace: Too much to ask?

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Debates on how international conditionalities or incentives have supported or undermined peacebuilding in Sri Lanka fail to ask whether they have even been seriously tried. Brian Smith reviews the failure to implement the aid conditionalities of the 2003 Tokyo Conference.

Choosing to engage: Armed groups and peace processes

May 2005
Accord issue 16 explores the case for engagement with armed groups and the lessons learned from peacemaking practice. Highlighting both opportunities and challenges, it suggests that the range of engagement options and potential interveners makes a strong case for engagement.

Opcinoes de compromiso: Apercamientos con grupos armados en procesos de paz

May 2005
Eligiendo el compromiso: grupos armados y procesos de paz (Accord N°16, 2005) explora casos de compromiso con grupos armados y las lecciones aprendidas para las prácticas de construcción de paz.

Asymmetries in the peace process: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

Choosing to engage: Armed groups and peace processes
May 2005
LTTE advisor Rudrakumaran argues that the international climate in which negotiations take place is biased in favour of states. Anti-terrorist legislation has erected artificial power asymmetries, limiting the LTTE’s involvement in peace talks.

Demanding sacrifice: War and negotiation in Sri Lanka

Aug 1998

Accord 4, Demanding sacrifice: War and negotiation in Sri Lanka, outlines the cycles of violent conflict that have Sri Lanka since 1983. It analyses negotiations and other peace initiatives that took place between 1993 and 1998 and summarises basic concerns that must be confronted if a future peace settlement is to be achieved.

The publication features background articles and analysis on government peace strategies, constitutional reform, and popular Buddhist and Tamil aspirations.

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