Resources

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking

Feb 2008
Faced with the problem of how to respond to the challenges of intra-state armed conflict, international policymakers often turn to incentives, sanctions and conditionality in the hope that these tools can alter the conflict dynamics and influence the protagonists' behaviour. Drawing on case studies from around the world, Accord issue 19 suggests that while these instruments have in some cases helped tip the balance towards settlement, in many others they been ineffective, incoherent or subsumed into the dynamics of the conflict.

International isolation and pressure for change in South Africa

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Catherine Barnes reviews the economic, financial and cultural sanctions imposed on South Africa between the 1960s to the 1990s and assesses the degree to which they played a useful in influencing an eventual transition.

Internal and external pressure to negotiate in South Africa: An interview with Roelf Meyer

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Former National Party chief negotiator Roelf Meyer discusses how the build-up of a combination of external and internal pressure brought the conditions for change in South Africa, but how the evolving relationship between the parties became more important once negotiations began in 1990.

Angola, imperfect peace

Jan 2005
In this article published by Developments magazine, Huw Spanner looks at Conciliation Resources' report on Angola's civil war and says that several of the important lessons within it can be applied to other African conflicts.

From military peace to social justice? The Angolan peace process

Oct 2004

From military peace to social justice? The Angolan peace process (Accord issue 15, 2004) asks ‘what next?’ for a nation that has secured a ‘military peace’ but still faces huge challenges in post-conflict peacebuilding and a secessionist war in Cabinda. It provides lessons from Angola’s history of conflict and peacemaking, and reviews past peace processes and the roles played by Angolan civil society, institutions such as the United Nations and foreign governments.

Introduction: Lessons from the Angolan ‘peace process’

From military peace to social justice? The Angolan peace process
Oct 2004
What can we learn about peacebuilding from Angola, whose ‘peace’ was the result of the government’s military victory? Issue editor Guus Meijer considers the lessons that must be learnt to help Angolans construct a lasting peace and a strong democracy.

Angola from past to present

From military peace to social justice? The Angolan peace process
Oct 2004
Guus Meijer and David Birmingham review Angola’s history, including the colonial period, the independence struggle, the introduction of authoritarian one-party rule under the MPLA, the impact of natural resource development, and the many years of war.

Why did Bicesse and Lusaka fail? A critical analysis

From military peace to social justice? The Angolan peace process
Oct 2004
Christine Messiant examines why the Bicesse (1991) and Lusaka (1994) peace agreements failed to end the Angolan conflict. She finds that neither side (nor their international backers) envisioned the processes as a means to peace but rather to acquiring state power.

The end of the war: The Luena Memorandum of Understanding

From military peace to social justice? The Angolan peace process
Oct 2004
The article outlines how the Luena Memorandum of Understanding was reached and asks whether a more inclusive process might not have laid better foundations for genuine democratisation, reconciliation and reconstruction.

The role of the United Nations in the Angolan peace process

From military peace to social justice? The Angolan peace process.
Oct 2004
Manuel Paulo charts the changing roles of the UN in Angola and the problems it faced. He describes how the 2000 Fowler Report broke new ground enforcing sanctions and the lessons that can be learnt from the UN’s experiences.

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