Resources

The EU and the transformation of the Irish border

Paix sans frontières: building peace across borders
Jan 2011
Katy Hayward describes how European integration helped over time to dilute the political significance of the border between Ireland and Britain, which contributed to the 1993 Downing Street Declaration. The EU has more recently tried to smooth tensions across the Irish border more explicitly through ‘PEACE’ initiatives, rehabilitating marginalised borderland areas and facilitating cross-border cooperation at national levels. But despite such direct EU community engagement, the sustainability of cross-border peacebuilding at a local level is questionable.

The EU and the Basque conflict: opportunities for engagement?

Paix sans frontières: building peace across borders
Jan 2011
Julen Zabalo and Oier Imaz discuss the Basque conflict from a Basque nationalist perspective. ETA’s ceasefire declaration of September 2010 suggests political transition and perhaps progress on the Basque issue. The authors ask whether the EU’s experiences in Ireland provide any lessons for the Basque case, and question why Brussels has so far failed to engage on the Basque question.

Paix sans frontières: building peace across borders

Jan 2011
War does not respect political or territorial boundaries. This twenty-second Accord publication looks at how peacebuilding strategies and capacity can ‘think outside the state’: beyond it, through regional engagement, and below it, through cross-border community or trade networks. Edited by Alexander Ramsbotham and I William Zartman, Paix sans frontières: building peace across borders includes 20 case studies from Asia, Europe and the Caucasus, to East, Central and West Africa, Central America and the Middle East. Articles also explore cross-border peacebuilding from global, systems analysis and legal perspectives, and focus on themes ranging from politics, governance and security, social and community relations, and trade and natural resources.

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking

Feb 2008
Faced with the problem of how to respond to the challenges of intra-state armed conflict, international policymakers often turn to incentives, sanctions and conditionality in the hope that these tools can alter the conflict dynamics and influence the protagonists' behaviour. Drawing on case studies from around the world, Accord issue 19 suggests that while these instruments have in some cases helped tip the balance towards settlement, in many others they been ineffective, incoherent or subsumed into the dynamics of the conflict.

Choosing to engage: Armed groups and peace processes

May 2005
Accord issue 16 explores the case for engagement with armed groups and the lessons learned from peacemaking practice. Highlighting both opportunities and challenges, it suggests that the range of engagement options and potential interveners makes a strong case for engagement.

Opcinoes de compromiso: Apercamientos con grupos armados en procesos de paz

May 2005
Eligiendo el compromiso: grupos armados y procesos de paz (Accord N°16, 2005) explora casos de compromiso con grupos armados y las lecciones aprendidas para las prácticas de construcción de paz.

Haciendo propio el proceso: La participación ciudadana en los procesos de paz

Jun 2004

The process for making a transition from war to peace provides an opportunity to agree new political, constitutional and economic arrangements that can deal with the roots of a conflict. However such decisions are often made solely by governments and armed groups’ representatives, who do not always represent the wider public’s interests.

Suspending judgement: The politics of peacebuilding in Northern Ireland (2003)

The Northern Ireland peace process: A supplement to 'Striking a balance' (update 2003)
Apr 2003
Clem McCartney reviews the achievements of the implementation process and the doubts that persist, highlighting various weaknesses in the agreement that implementation has exposed, and reflecting on the prospects for the future.

Chronology: Accord Northern Ireland (2003)

The Northern Ireland peace process: A supplement to 'Striking a balance' (update 2003)
Apr 2003
Chronology: Northern Ireland

This chronology gives context to the update to Accord issue 8 The Northern Ireland peace process: A supplement to Striking a balance.

Owning the process: Public participation in peacemaking

Dec 2002

The process for making a transition from war to peace provides an opportunity to agree new political, constitutional and economic arrangements that can deal with the roots of a conflict. However such decisions are often made solely by governments and armed groups’ representatives, who do not always represent the wider public’s interests.

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