Resources

Legitimacy and peace processes: from coercion to consent (Accord 25)

Apr 2014
Legitimacy matters for peace. It is the basis of the social and political deals between states and citizens, and local leaders and their communities. Legitimacy transforms coercive power into political authority and is the bedrock of peaceful societies. Looking at 15 country case studies at various stages of conflict, this edition in our Accord series focuses on legitimacy and the practical ways that it can contribute to building more sustainable peace.

Policy brief - Legitimacy and peace process: from coercion to consent

Apr 2014
This 6-page policy brief summarises the findings of Accord 25 - Legitimacy and peace processes: from coercion to consent. It argues that a legitimacy lens should be applied to peace processes by paying attention to priorities of context, consent and change.

Afghanistan - Local governance, national reconciliation and community reintegration

Legitimacy and peace processes: from coercion to consent
Apr 2014

Karim Merchant and Ghulam Rasoul Rasouli analyse attempts in Afghanistan to use Community Development Councils (CDCs) to roll out a national reintegration programme for ex-combatants at the local level. The CDCs’ main function is to implement the National Solidarity Program (NSP), established in 2003 as “the largest people’s project in the history of Afghanistan”.

Paix sans frontières: building peace across borders

Jan 2011
War does not respect political or territorial boundaries. This twenty-second Accord publication looks at how peacebuilding strategies and capacity can ‘think outside the state’: beyond it, through regional engagement, and below it, through cross-border community or trade networks. Edited by Alexander Ramsbotham and I William Zartman, Paix sans frontières: building peace across borders includes 20 case studies from Asia, Europe and the Caucasus, to East, Central and West Africa, Central America and the Middle East. Articles also explore cross-border peacebuilding from global, systems analysis and legal perspectives, and focus on themes ranging from politics, governance and security, social and community relations, and trade and natural resources.

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking

Feb 2008
Faced with the problem of how to respond to the challenges of intra-state armed conflict, international policymakers often turn to incentives, sanctions and conditionality in the hope that these tools can alter the conflict dynamics and influence the protagonists' behaviour. Drawing on case studies from around the world, Accord issue 19 suggests that while these instruments have in some cases helped tip the balance towards settlement, in many others they been ineffective, incoherent or subsumed into the dynamics of the conflict.

Negotiations in a globalised world

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Arguing that the negotiations between the Sri Lankan government and the LTTE that began in 2002 must be understood less as a ‘peace process’ than as a part of the government’s strategic response to economic crisis, Sunil Bastian outlines the reason for their failure.

The limits of external influence

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Former government negotiator Harim Peiris reflects on three aspects of international involvement in Sri Lanka's peace process: the impact of terrorist designations on the LTTE, the use of aid as a lever, and the orchestration of international support.

Prejudice, asymmetry and insecurity

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Suthaharan Nadarajah discusses the Sri Lankan peace process from 2002 and concludes that international action served to tilt the strategic balance in favour of the state rather than ensuring the parties addressed the underlying causes of conflict.

International support for peace: Too much to ask?

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Debates on how international conditionalities or incentives have supported or undermined peacebuilding in Sri Lanka fail to ask whether they have even been seriously tried. Brian Smith reviews the failure to implement the aid conditionalities of the 2003 Tokyo Conference.

Choosing to engage: Armed groups and peace processes

May 2005
Accord issue 16 explores the case for engagement with armed groups and the lessons learned from peacemaking practice. Highlighting both opportunities and challenges, it suggests that the range of engagement options and potential interveners makes a strong case for engagement.

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