Resources

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking

Feb 2008
Faced with the problem of how to respond to the challenges of intra-state armed conflict, international policymakers often turn to incentives, sanctions and conditionality in the hope that these tools can alter the conflict dynamics and influence the protagonists' behaviour. Drawing on case studies from around the world, Accord issue 19 suggests that while these instruments have in some cases helped tip the balance towards settlement, in many others they been ineffective, incoherent or subsumed into the dynamics of the conflict.

External versus internal incentives in peace processes: The Bougainville experience

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Anthony Regan discusses two aspects of international support to the Bougainville peace process: the use of development funds, and finding creative ways of sequencing and linking stages of implementation of difficult aspects of the peace agreement to provide incentives to each side to implement what they had agreed.

Weaving consensus: The Papua New Guinea - Bougainville peace process

Sep 2002

The peace agreement signed in 2001 on the island of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea (PNG), ended the most violent conflict in the South Pacific since World War II. Weaving consensus: the Papua New Guinea - Bougainville peace process (Accord issue 12, 2002) outlines an extraordinary array of creative initiatives and interventions that succeeded not only in ending the organised violence but brought together Bougainvillean society within a national framework. The process defined a negotiated settlement acceptable to all.

Early interventions

Weaving consensus: The Papua New Guinea - Bougainville peace process
Sep 2002
Accord Papua New Guinea: Early interventions
Peter Sohia traces how negotiations on Bougainville’s relationship to the PNG government developed from 1980s to the mid-1990s. He argues that, despite their repeated failures, these efforts form part of an important cumulative process towards peace.

From Burnham to Buin: Sowing the seeds of peace in the land of the snow-capped mountains

Weaving consensus: The Papua New Guinea - Bougainville peace process
Sep 2002
Accord Papua New Guinea: From Burnham to Buin
Robert Tapi traces the Burnham process to its culmination in the Lincoln Agreement. He examines the role of New Zealand and Australia, the significance of the venues and the importance of the relationship between key individuals.

Phases of the negotiations

Weaving consensus: The Papua New Guinea - Bougainville peace process
Sep 2002
Accord Papua New Guinea: Phases of the negotiation process
Anthony Regan identifies and analyses the four phases of talks in the Bougainville peace process after the turning point in 1997 and which culminated in the Bougainville Peace Agreement of 2001.

© Conciliation Resources Burghley Yard, 106 Burghley Road, London NW5 1AL
Tel: +44 (0)20 7359 7728  Fax: +44(0)20 7359 4081  Email: cr@c-r.org
Terms and conditions
Charity registered in England and Wales (1055436)
Company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales (03196482)