Former Soviet Union

The limits of leadership: Elites and societies in the Nagorny Karabakh peace process

Dec 2005
As Azerbaijan and Armenia remain in deadlock over Nagorny Karabakh, Accord issue 17 highlights the challenges and obstacles to a sustainable agreement.

Nagorny Karabakh

Since the ceasefire in 1994 Azerbaijan and Armenia have remained in deadlock over Nagorny Karabakh in the South Caucasus. An internationally sponsored peace process based on closed talks between the leaders has yielded several proposals but no agreement.

Accord 17 highlights the obstacles to a sustainable agreement and explores the challenge of bridging the gap between potential for settlement at the negotiating table and popular resistance to the compromises that this entails. It contains sections on:

Sanctions and the path away from peace

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
In arguing that Georgia and other international actors have misjudged the consequences of the policy of isolating Abkhazia, Liana Kvarchelia describes the sanctions imposed, the effects of Russia's easing of restrictions, and the resulting changes in Abkhazian attitudes.

The isolation of Abkhazia: A failed policy or an opportunity?

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Archil Gegeshidze explores the Georgian government's strategy of isolating Abkhazia and discusses the possible ways out of the current limbo.

Introduction to the Georgia–Abkhazia case study

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Jonathan Cohen introduces the Georgia–Abkhazia case study by providing some historical context to the conflict and highlighting key aspects of the regime of sanctions on Abkhazia as experienced by the respective parties to the conflict.

Individual rights, societal choices: Confronting legacies of displacement in the Nagorny Karabakh conflict

Nov 2011
Over one million people lost their homes as a result of the Nagorny Karabakh conflict. This policy brief from Conciliation Resources explains why it is crucial that any future peace agreement addresses this legacy.

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking

Feb 2008
Faced with the problem of how to respond to the challenges of intra-state armed conflict, international policymakers often turn to incentives, sanctions and conditionality in the hope that these tools can alter the conflict dynamics and influence the protagonists' behaviour. Drawing on case studies from around the world, Accord issue 19 suggests that while these instruments have in some cases helped tip the balance towards settlement, in many others they been ineffective, incoherent or subsumed into the dynamics of the conflict.

Incentives, sanctions and conditionality

Faced with the problem of how to respond to the challenges of intra-state armed conflict, international policymakers often turn to incentives, sanctions and conditionality in the hope that these tools can alter the conflict dynamics and influence the protagonists' behaviour.

But do such policy instruments underpin or undermine peace processes? How can they constructively influence conflict parties' engagement in peacemaking initiatives?

Encouraging dialogue across a conflict divide

Esma who is Georgian and Anzhela from Abkhazia, travelled to London to take part in internships with Conciliation Resources and share their experiences as participants on the Young Dialogue project.

Paix sans frontières: building peace across borders

Jan 2011
War does not respect political or territorial boundaries. This twenty-second Accord publication looks at how peacebuilding strategies and capacity can ‘think outside the state’: beyond it, through regional engagement, and below it, through cross-border community or trade networks. Edited by Alexander Ramsbotham and I William Zartman, Paix sans frontières: building peace across borders includes 20 case studies from Asia, Europe and the Caucasus, to East, Central and West Africa, Central America and the Middle East. Articles also explore cross-border peacebuilding from global, systems analysis and legal perspectives, and focus on themes ranging from politics, governance and security, social and community relations, and trade and natural resources.

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