The role of the international community in Colombia

Alternatives to war: Colombia’s peace processes
Feb 2004
Augusto Ramírez Ocampo examines the different roles played by the international community and reviews contradictions within its approaches to the conflict, concluding that a successful peace process will need international support. 

No room for peace? United States’ policy in Colombia

Alternatives to war: Colombia’s peace processes
Feb 2004
Arguing that US policy towards Colombia has been driven by domestic concerns, Winifred Tate reviews the impact of US-sponsored coca spraying, Plan Colombia, US military assistance and attempts by Congress to tie this to the protection of human rights.

The government and the ELN: Two discourses that don’t meet

Alternatives to war: Colombia’s peace processes.
Feb 2004
Alejo Vargas Velásquez explores the attitude of the ELN to negotiation processes and how the government’s perception of the military weakness of the ELN – and the ELN’s efforts to demonstrate the reverse – has impacted on talks.

Dilemmas of multiple priorities and multiple instruments: The Darfur crisis

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: Dilemmas of multiple priorities
Alex de Waal assesses the international efforts to address the Darfur crisis, noting the multiplicity of goals and mechanisms (especially instruments of pressure), and the reasons they more often impeded the search for a practical solution to the conflict.

External versus internal incentives in peace processes: The Bougainville experience

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: External versus internal incentives
Anthony Regan discusses two aspects of international support to the Bougainville peace process: the use of development funds, and finding creative ways of sequencing and linking stages of implementation of difficult aspects of the peace agreement to provide incentives to each side to implement what they had agreed.

Internal and external pressure to negotiate in South Africa: An interview with Roelf Meyer

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: Internal and external pressure to negotiate
Former National Party chief negotiator Roelf Meyer discusses how the build-up of a combination of external and internal pressure brought the conditions for change in South Africa, but how the evolving relationship between the parties became more important once negotiations began in 1990.

International isolation and pressure for change in South Africa

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: International isolation and pressure for change in South Africa
Catherine Barnes reviews the economic, financial and cultural sanctions imposed on South Africa between the 1960s to the 1990s and assesses the degree to which they played a useful in influencing an eventual transition.

EU incentives for promoting peace

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: EU incentives
Nathalie Tocci discusses three mechanisms through which EU contractual relations can incentivise conflict resolution – conditionality, learning and 'passive enforcement' – and identifies three main determinants of effectiveness. At the end of the article is the story of Cyprus’s accession to the EU and demise of the ‘Annan plan’ which proposed the creation of a united Cyprus Republic.

Colombia

Forty years of armed conflict have created a horrific legacy of violence and suffering in Colombia. Yet they have also resulted in a wealth of imaginative peace initiatives by people and institutions throughout society and across the political spectrum.