Angola

Angola’s 26-year civil war ended in April 2002 with the signing of the Luena Memorandum of Understanding between the government and the Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). Marking the end of the government’s campaign to achieve peace through war, the Luena Memorandum built on a series of previous failed peace agreements.

From military peace to social justice? The Angolan peace process

Oct 2004
From military peace to social justice? The Angolan peace process (Accord issue 15, 2004) asks ‘what next?’ for a nation that has secured a ‘military peace’ but still faces huge challenges in post-conflict peacebuilding and a secessionist war in Cabinda. It provides lessons from Angola’s history of conflict and peacemaking, and reviews past peace processes and the roles played by Angolan civil society, institutions such as the United Nations and foreign governments.

The role of the international community in Colombia

Alternatives to war: Colombia’s peace processes
Feb 2004
Augusto Ramírez Ocampo examines the different roles played by the international community and reviews contradictions within its approaches to the conflict, concluding that a successful peace process will need international support. 

No room for peace? United States’ policy in Colombia

Alternatives to war: Colombia’s peace processes
Feb 2004
Arguing that US policy towards Colombia has been driven by domestic concerns, Winifred Tate reviews the impact of US-sponsored coca spraying, Plan Colombia, US military assistance and attempts by Congress to tie this to the protection of human rights.

The government and the ELN: Two discourses that don’t meet

Alternatives to war: Colombia’s peace processes.
Feb 2004
Alejo Vargas Velásquez explores the attitude of the ELN to negotiation processes and how the government’s perception of the military weakness of the ELN – and the ELN’s efforts to demonstrate the reverse – has impacted on talks.

Dilemmas of multiple priorities and multiple instruments: The Darfur crisis

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: Dilemmas of multiple priorities
Alex de Waal assesses the international efforts to address the Darfur crisis, noting the multiplicity of goals and mechanisms (especially instruments of pressure), and the reasons they more often impeded the search for a practical solution to the conflict.

External versus internal incentives in peace processes: The Bougainville experience

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: External versus internal incentives
Anthony Regan discusses two aspects of international support to the Bougainville peace process: the use of development funds, and finding creative ways of sequencing and linking stages of implementation of difficult aspects of the peace agreement to provide incentives to each side to implement what they had agreed.

Internal and external pressure to negotiate in South Africa: An interview with Roelf Meyer

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: Internal and external pressure to negotiate
Former National Party chief negotiator Roelf Meyer discusses how the build-up of a combination of external and internal pressure brought the conditions for change in South Africa, but how the evolving relationship between the parties became more important once negotiations began in 1990.

International isolation and pressure for change in South Africa

Powers of persuasion: Incentives, sanctions and conditionality in peacemaking
Feb 2008
Accord Incentives: International isolation and pressure for change in South Africa
Catherine Barnes reviews the economic, financial and cultural sanctions imposed on South Africa between the 1960s to the 1990s and assesses the degree to which they played a useful in influencing an eventual transition.