From military peace to social justice? The Angolan peace process
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The warring sides in Angola used the media as an ideological weapon. It now faces the challenge of transforming itself into a force for democracy and reconciliation. Following independence, the government embraced highly censored and propagandistic state journalism that precluded journalistic professionalism. The emergence of private media in 1991 was eclipsed by the polarised 1992 election campaign and the return to war. However, media sources giving a voice to those who opposed the war did begin to emerge, including Folha 8, Agora and Radio Ecclesia. Ismael Mateus argues that, paradoxically, the war helped create pressure for a more critical media, but challenges remain, including poor professionalism and capacity, an underdeveloped concept of public service and a lack of regional and community media.