In this article, Joseph Kabui sets out the main challenges to sustainable peace in Bougainville. These include implementing every aspect of the peace deal and the parties maintaining honesty and transparency in their dealings. He then identifies three conditions which need to be fulfilled in order to meet those challenges. The first is demilitarisation. This appears to be progressing well but needs to be accompanied by employment and training of ex-combatants. Secondly a political institution to sustain autonomy must be developed and it must have adequate financial resources. The third challenge, which the author is confident can be achieved, is dealing with the past and building respect for rights and the law.