From military peace to social justice? The Angolan peace process
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The demobilisation, disarmament and reintegration (DDR) of 500,000 ex-combatants and their families set out in the Luena Memorandum of Understanding of 2002 has almost been completed. Imogen Parsons questions how far the DDR process, crucial for lasting peace, reflects the government’s military and political dominance rather than the needs of the ex-combatants themselves. The article examines the DDR framework and the practical measures and challenges involved in its implementation, in particular the hurried timetable and the lack of resources and coordination. Although the country has not witnessed the spread of banditry and lawlessness, there remain significant challenges in reintegrating ex-combatants into their communities and providing these communities themselves with development opportunities.